Agency problems can arise in oral arguments, because although the prosecutor represents the people and the defence counsel represents the accused, the objectives of these officers may not match those of their sponsors. For example, prosecutors and defence counsel may try to maintain good relationships with each other, creating a potential conflict with the parties they represent. A defence lawyer may receive a flat fee to represent a client, or may not receive additional money to open a case in court, prompting defence counsel to settle a case in order to increase profits or avoid a financial loss. The plea contract is between the parties – the prosecutor and the accused. Although the victim is not involved in the criminal case and the prosecutor is not a tool in the hands of the victim to take revenge on the offender, the victim`s attitude towards the pleading contract remains important. Judges are not required to impose a sentence in a joint submission and failure to respect a common submission by a judge is not, in itself, grounds for reducing sentences on appeal. However, if a judge does not routinely respect the common words, that judge would impair the Crown`s ability to meaningfully induce the accused to plead guilty. Defence counsel would be detained if they were considered uns valuable to a particular judge, which would lead to otherwise avoidable trials. For these reasons, Canadian judges will generally impose a sentence as part of a joint filing.  The oral arguments were introduced in Japan in June 2018. The first plea case under the scheme, in July 2018, involved charges of bribery of Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems in Thailand.  The second case was an agreement reached in November 2018 to obtain evidence of violations of accounting law and securities against Nissan executives Carlos Ghosn and Greg Kelly.  Under Italian law, a good deal does not need an admission of guilt (in Italy, there are no pleas); for this reason, a negotiating penalty is merely an acceptance of the sentence in exchange for the closing of the investigation and the procedure and has no binding cogenity in other trials, particularly in civil trials where parties of the same facts are dealt with on the effects of civil liability and in other criminal proceedings where the accused`s accomplices who have sought and received a trial sentence are treated.
 A plea, also known as a plea or reason for negotiation, is an alternative and consensual method of resolving criminal proceedings. A plea agreement means the resolution of a dispute without trial, where the defendant agrees to plead guilty in exchange for a lesser charge, a lighter sentence or the dismissal of certain related charges. (Article 209 of Georgia`s Code of Criminal Procedure) In Estonia, arguments were launched in the 1990s: the sentence is reduced in exchange for confessions and avoiding most trials. Arguments are permitted for offences punishable by more than four years in prison. Normally, a 25% discount is granted. [Citation required] In other cases, formal pleas are limited in Pakistan, but the prosecutor has the power to drop a case or charge, and in practice this is often the case in exchange for an accused who has pleaded guilty to a lesser charge.